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主题:迈腾激光焊接技术的特点共有 556 人关注过本贴
liang [1楼]
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发表于:2010-5-18 15:24:45引用 

    迈腾的激光焊缝长达42m,保证了其整体尺寸的精确性、车身强度和刚性。速腾的激光焊接主要是在车身的顶盖和侧围的连接、底板不等厚板的拼接、车门内板不等厚板的拼接、底板与侧围、后围板、前后风窗口以及门框等连接处。在外观上,采用激光复合钎焊的车顶只有一条细致平滑的焊缝,直接作为外表面而增加了车身的流线视觉效果。而采用传统点焊工艺的车顶则有两条橡胶密封条。 

    (1)迈腾车身激光切割技术的特点 用激光将不同厚度、不同材质、不同或相同性能的几块薄板拼焊起来,再冲压成形。不但提高了板材利用率(由40%~60%提高到70%~80%),而且减轻了车身重量,提高了车身结构的综合力学性能。 

激光拼焊是在车身设计制造中,根据车身不同的设计和性能要求,选择不同规格的钢板,通过激光裁剪和拼装技术完成车身某一部位的制造,例如迈腾前挡风玻璃框架、车门内板、车身前底板等处均采用激光拼接技术。激光拼焊具有减少零件和模具数量、减少点焊数目、优化材料用量、降低零件重量、降低成本和提高尺寸精度等优点。  

    (2)速腾车身激光熔焊焊接方法的特点 就点焊本身而言,焊点的强度可以很高,但没有焊点的部分还是断续分离的,在车身整体强度方面要比焊接成一体的激光焊接接头强度要低。点焊的不连续性和其自身的特点:如焊点容易变形,尤其是在焊接三层板连接、镀锌板连接和高强钢的连接时,焊接变形较大,导致焊点处的平整度降低及产生缝隙,而且点焊会造成焊接点周围的母材热影响区强度下降,车辆遭严重撞击时的断裂部位往往是在该处。目前,我国只有大众车系普遍采用了激光焊接这种先进的焊接制造工艺。 

    迈腾车身的四门两盖、后流水槽、后围板及前后风窗口等诸多部位均采用了激光熔焊技术。由于焊接速度较快,所以焊接接头的热影响区较其他的焊接方法小,几乎没有焊接变形。这样可极大地提高了车身的结构和匹配尺寸、门盖与侧围的平度与密封效果、风挡玻璃与风窗口的匹配与密封,以及实现多层板的优质连接。另外,由于迈腾车身全部采用镀锌钢板,如果采用传统的点焊技术,由于三层板和镀锌的缘故,必须采用较大的焊接电流和焊接压力,其结果必然导致焊点质量下降和焊点变形严重,从而导致装配质量下降。 

    在迈腾侧围总成的制造过程中,由于优质高强钢在侧围B-柱、侧围前内板总成、侧围后内板总成、门槛加强板和侧围顶部加强板的普遍应用,给侧围逐级总成的焊接带来了极大的困难。高强钢的屈服强度约为普通钢板的3~4倍,采用传统的点焊已经不能实现优质连接,惟一可行的是采用中频点焊连接技术和激光熔焊连接技术。迈腾侧围连接几乎全部选择使用激光熔焊技术和少量的中频焊接技术。激光焊接技术不仅具有较高的热输入,而且焊接速度较快,无焊接变形,可以获得其他焊接方法无法达到的优质焊缝。由于提高了车身尺寸匹配精度和接头强度,使迈腾车身的强度达到了较高的水平。 

    (3)速腾车身激光复合焊接的特点 图6描绘了激光-MIG复合焊的基本原理。除了电弧向焊接区输入能量外,激光也向焊缝金属输入热量。激光复合焊技术并不是两种焊接方法依次作用,而是两种焊接方法同时作用于焊接区。激光和电弧在不同程度和形式上影响复合焊接的性能。在激光-MIG复合焊接时,挥发不仅发生在工件的表面,同时也发生在填充焊丝上,使得更多的金属挥发,从而使激光的能量传输更加容易。 

    激光复合焊接技术是激光与其他热源的相互作用,从而使焊接速度提高,焊接周期缩短,而且达到同样焊接目的所需的激光功率大大降低,这些都能使焊接成本大大降低。因此,激光复合焊接技术无论从工艺角度,还是从经济角度来看都具有广阔的发展和应用前景。 

    激光复合焊接技术具有显著的优点。对于激光复合焊接,优点主要体现在:无烧穿时焊缝背面下垂的现象,适用范围更广;对于激光+MIG焊接,优点主要体现在:较高的焊接速度、熔焊深度大、产生的焊接热少、焊缝的强度高、焊缝宽度小及焊缝凸出小,从而使整个系统的生产过程稳定性好、设备可用性好、焊缝准备工作量和焊接后焊缝处理工作量小,以及焊接生产工时短、费用低、生产效率高。

一汽大众车身顶盖与侧围的连接都采用激光-MIG复合焊,常用接头形式与迈腾顶盖激光钎焊接头形式如图7所示。由于激光-MIG复合焊具有较好的电弧稳定性和填充性能,焊后焊缝熔宽比符合设计要求、焊缝表面光滑、具有较高强度和塑性,一般表面无需PVC涂层,可直接作为裸露表面使用。由于焊缝为连续密封焊缝,因而对整车的车身刚性、密封性和防止内部噪声的产生等方面均具有积极的作用。 

    由于激光焊接系统的复杂性,对于维修的要求相对较高,通常对于一个车型,所有的激光焊接设备需要组成一个局域网,做到数据内部之间的通信。每一个焊接光源均需要一个Internet接口,直接与激光光源设备供应商的计算机故障分析系统相连。当激光焊接设备发生故障时,如果现场维修不能解决,可以由设备供应商进行远程故障诊断和维修,避免了不必要的长时间停产。为便于人员之间的信息交流,激光光源存放地备有国内外电话。 

    另外,由于激光焊接设备具有较高的价格,所以必须充分利用现有激光光源资源,以便降低备件储备。一汽大众迈腾车身激光焊接所使用的焊接光源一般都由数个偶数倍的光源输出光路。数量的多少一方面取决于焊接工艺和焊接夹具的设计形式;另一方面取决于激光紧急维修预案。 

普弗沃 [2楼]
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kani1987 [3楼]
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